Single Dimension Techniques - HPLC, Photon Probe, UV, AAS, FID and ECD techniques
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Solvent is pumped at high pressure through a column containing particles of stationary phase. Separation is based on the following principles: Adsorption, Distribution, Ion Exchange & Exclusion. Reverse-phase chromatography is the more common method used (rather than Normal phase chromatography) as it employs a non-polar stationary phase and a polar solvent.
Photon Probe Techniques
Photon Probe Techniques are used for surface and interface analysis. These mainly include: XPS (X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy), SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) for compositional surface analysis, AEM (Analytical Electron Microscopy) for characterization of interfaces, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) for characterizing surface morphology and many others.
Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometry - is a technique which is mainly used for the analysis of metal ions, organic (substituted hydrocarbons) and inorganic (nitrate & nitrite) compounds.
The Spectrophotometer - is based on the Beer-Lambert Law, that is light is emitted from a light source where a specific wavelength is selected (monochromator) and passed through the sample and thus the absorbance is measured by the light detector (appropriate for samples with a wavelength range of 180-780nm).
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - is mainly used for 'total' metal analysis. The sample in solution is aspirated into a flame and is then atomised. AAS is also sensitive to 1mg/L and versatile (up to 60 elements). Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES) is a variation of AAS - as AAS is the absorption of photons whereas AES is the emission of photons.
Flame Ionization Detector
Flame Ionization Detector - contains two electrodes which collect ionized species (negligible response to ketones or ether & a weak response to substituted carbons).
Electron Capture Detector
Electron Capture Detector - also contains two electrodes, one is coated with a radioisotope which emits beta-particles (has a high response for halogenated compounds, organometallics and nitroaromatics, and a low response for hydrocarbons, alcohols and aromatics).